Filgrastim Injection

Filgrastim is a human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)‚ produced by recombinant DNA technology. filgrastim is the Amgen Inc. trademark for Filgrastim‚ which has been selected as the name for recombinant methionyl human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (r-metHuG-CSF).

filgrastim is a 175 amino acid protein manufactured by recombinant DNA technology.1 filgrastim is produced by Escherichia coli (E coli) bacteria into which has been inserted the human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor gene. filgrastim has a molecular weight of 18‚800 daltons. The protein has an amino acid sequence that is identical to the natural sequence predicted from human DNA sequence analysis‚ except for the addition of an N-terminal methionine necessary for expression in E coli. Because filgrastim is produced in E coli‚ the product is nonglycosylated and thus differs from G-CSF isolated from a human cell.

INDICATION

Filgrastim Injection is used in Cancer Patients Receiving Myelosuppressive Chemotherapy, Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Receiving Induction or Consolidation Chemotherapy, Cancer Patients Receiving Bone Marrow Transplant, Patients Undergoing Peripheral Blood Progenitor Cell Collection and Therapy, Patients With Severe Chronic Neutropenia

Hydrocortisone Sodium Succinate For Injection

Glucocorticoids, naturally occurring and synthetic, are adrenocortical steroids that are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.

Naturally occurring glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone and cortisone), which also have salt-retaining properties, are used as replacement therapy in adrenocortical deficiency states. Their synthetic analogs are primarily used for their anti-inflammatory effects in disorders of many organ systems.

Hydrocortisone sodium succinate has the same metabolic and anti-inflammatory actions as hydrocortisone. When given parenterally and in equimolar quantities, the two compounds are equivalent in biologic activity. The highly water-soluble sodium succinate ester of hydrocortisone permits the immediate intravenous administration of high doses of hydrocortisone in a small volume of diluent and is particularly useful where high blood levels of hydrocortisone are required rapidly. Following the intravenous injection of hydrocortisone sodium succinate, demonstrable effects are evident within one hour and persist for a variable period. Excretion of the administered dose is nearly complete within 12 hours. Thus, if constantly high blood levels are required, injections should be made every 4 to 6 hours. This preparation is also rapidly absorbed when administered intramuscularly and is excreted in a pattern similar to that observed after intravenous injection.

Glucocorticoids cause profound and varied metabolic effects. In addition, they modify the body’s immune response to diverse stimuli.

INDICATION

Allergic states
Control of severe or incapacitating allergic conditions intractable to adequate trials of conventional treatment in asthma, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, drug hypersensitivity reactions, perennial or seasonal allergic rhinitis, serum sickness, transfusion reactions.

Dermatologic diseases
Bullous dermatitis herpetiformis, exfoliative erythroderma, mycosis fungoides, pemphigus, severe erythema multiforme (Stevens-Johnson syndrome).

Endocrine disorders
Primary or secondary adrenocortical insufficiency (hydrocortisone or cortisone is the drug of choice; synthetic analogs may be used in conjunction with mineralocorticoids where applicable; in infancy, mineralocorticoid supplementation is of particular importance), congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypercalcemia associated with cancer, nonsuppurative thyroiditis.

Gastrointestinal diseases
To tide the patient over a critical period of the disease in regional enteritis (systemic therapy) and ulcerative colitis.

Hematologic disorders
Acquired (autoimmune) hemolytic anemia, congenital (erythroid) hypoplastic anemia (Diamond Blackfan anemia), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in adults (intravenous administration only; intramuscular administration is contraindicated), pure red cell aplasia, select cases of secondary thrombocytopenia.

Miscellaneous
Trichinosis with neurologic or myocardial involvement, tuberculous meningitis with subarachnoid block or impending block when used concurrently with appropriate antituberculous chemotherapy.

Neoplastic diseases
For the palliative management of leukemias and lymphomas.

Nervous System
Acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis; cerebral edema associated with primary or metastatic brain tumor, or craniotomy.

Ophthalmic diseases
Sympathetic ophthalmia, uveitis and ocular inflammatory conditions unresponsive to topical corticosteroids.

Renal diseases
To induce diuresis or remission of proteinuria in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, or that due to lupus erythematosus.

Respiratory diseases
Berylliosis, fulminating or disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis when used concurrently with appropriate antituberculous chemotherapy, idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonias, symptomatic sarcoidosis.

Rheumatic disorders
As adjunctive therapy for short-term administration.

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) Lyophilized

The action of HCG is virtually identical to that of pituitary LH, although HCG appears to have a small degree of FSH activity as well. It stimulates the production of gonadal steroid hormones by stimulating the interstitial cells (Leydig cells) of the testis to produce androgens and the corpus luteum of the ovary to produce progesterone.

Androgen stimulation in the male leads to the development of secondary sex characteristics and may stimulate testicular descent when no anatomical impediment to descent is present. This descent is usually reversible when HCG is discontinued. During the normal menstrual cycle, LH participates with FSH in the development and maturation of the normal ovarian follicle, and the mid-cycle LH surge triggers ovulation.

HCG can substitute for LH in this function.  During a normal pregnancy, HCG secreted by the placenta maintains the corpus luteum after LH secretion decreases, supporting continued secretion of estrogen and progesterone and preventing menstruation.  HCG HAS NO KNOWN EFFECT ON FAT MOBILIZATION, APPETITE OR SENSE OF HUNGER, OR BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION.

INDICATION

HCG has not been demonstrated to be effective adjunctive therapy in the treatment of obesity.  there is no substantial evidence that it increases weight loss beyond that resulting from caloric restriction, that it causes a more attractive or ‘‘normal’’ distribution of fat, or that it decreases the hunger and discomfort associated with calorie-restricted diets.

  1. Prepubertal cryptorchidism not due to anatomical obstruction.  In general, HCG is thought to induce testicular descent in situations when descent would have occurred at puberty.  HCG thus may help predict whether or not orchiopexy will be needed in the future.  Although, in some cases, descent following HCG administration is permanent, in most cases, the response is temporary.  Therapy is usually instituted between the ages of four and nine.
  2. Selected cases of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (hypogonadism secondary to a pituitary deficiency) in males.
  3. Induction of ovulation and pregnancy in the anovulatory, infertile woman in whom the cause of anovulation is secondary and not due to primary ovarian failure, and who has been appropriately pretreated with human menotropins.

Somatropin For Injection (Lyophilized)

Somatropin InjectionSomatropin (as well as endogenous GH) binds to a dimeric GH receptor in the cell membrane of target cells resulting in intracellular signal transduction and a host of pharmacodynamic effects. Some of these pharmacodynamic effects are primarily mediated by IGF-1 produced in the liver and also locally (e.g., skeletal growth, protein synthesis), while others are primarily a consequence of the direct effects of somatropin (e.g., lipolysis)

INDICATION

Pediatric Patients

(somatropin [rDNA origin] injection) is indicated for the treatment of children with growth failure due to inadequate secretion of endogenous growth hormone (GH).

[somatropin (rDNA origin) injection] is indicated for the treatment of pediatric patients who have growth failure due to Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). The diagnosis of PWS should be confirmed by appropriate genetic testing

[somatropin (rDNA origin) injection] is indicated for the treatment of growth failure in children born small for gestational age (SGA) who fail to manifest catch-up growth by age 2 years.

[somatropin (rDNA origin) injection] is indicated for the treatment of growth failure associated with Turner syndrome.

(somatropin [rDNA origin] injection) is indicated for the treatment of idiopathic short stature (ISS), also called non-growth hormone-deficient short stature, defined by height standard deviation score (SDS) ≤ -2.25, and associated with growth rates unlikely to permit attainment of adult height in the normal range, in pediatric patients whose epiphyses are not closed and for whom diagnostic evaluation excludes other causes associated with short stature that should be observed or treated by other means.

 Adult Patients

(somatropin [rDNA origin] injection) is indicated for the replacement of endogenous GH in adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) who meet either of the following two criteria:

Adult Onset (AO): Patients who have GHD, either alone or associated with multiple hormone deficiencies (hypopituitarism), as a result of pituitary disease, hypothalamic disease, surgery, radiation therapy, or trauma; or

Childhood Onset (CO): Patients who were GH deficient during childhood as a result of congenital, genetic, acquired, or idiopathic causes.

Patients who were treated with somatropin for growth hormone deficiency in childhood and whose epiphyses are closed should be reevaluated before continuation of somatropin therapy at the reduced dose level recommended for growth hormone deficient adults. Confirmation of the diagnosis of adult growth hormone deficiency in both groups involves an appropriate growth hormone provocative test with two exceptions: (1) patients with multiple other pituitary hormone deficiencies due to organic disease; and (2) patients with congenital/genetic growth hormone deficiency.