Tamoxifen citrate is a nonsteroidal agent that has demonstrated potent antiestrogenic properties in animal test systems. The antiestrogenic effects may be related to its ability to compete with estrogen for binding sites in target tissues such as breast. Tamoxifen inhibits the induction of rat mammary carcinoma induced by dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and causes the regression of already established DMBA-induced tumors. In this rat model, tamoxifen appears to exert its antitumor effects by binding the estrogen receptors.
In cytosols derived from human breast adenocarcinomas, tamoxifen competes with estradiol for estrogen receptor protein.
Metastatic Breast Cancer: Tamoxifen citrate tablets are effective in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in women and men. In premenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer, tamoxifen is an alternative to oophorectomy or ovarian irradiation. Available evidence indicates that patients whose tumors are estrogen receptor positive are more likely to benefit from tamoxifen therapy.
Adjuvant Treatment of Breast Cancer: Tamoxifen citrate tablets are indicated for the treatment of node-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women following total mastectomy or segmental mastectomy, axillary dissection, and breast irradiation. In some tamoxifen adjuvant studies, most of the benefit to date has been in the subgroup with 4 or more positive axillary nodes.
Tamoxifen is indicated for the treatment of axillary node-negative breast cancer in women following total mastectomy or segmental mastectomy, axillary dissection, and breast irradiation.
The estrogen and progesterone receptor values may help to predict whether adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is likely to be beneficial.
Tamoxifen reduces occurrence of contralateral breast cancer in patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer.
Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS): In women with DCIS, following breast surgery and radiation, tamoxifen citrate tablets are indicated to reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer . The decision regarding therapy with tamoxifen for the reduction in breast cancer incidence should be based upon an individual assessment of the benefits and risks of tamoxifen therapy.
Current data from clinical trials support five years of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for patients with breast cancer